Glutamine transaminase L;
||L-kynurenine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
||-!- Also acts on 3-hydroxykynurenine.
-!- include 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124
||In mammals, four distinct enzymes are known to transaminate kynurenine, they are only distantly related to each other and all of them also carry out different reactions, ingenerating a considerable confusion in the nomenclature.
The human kynurenine aminotransferases 1 (KYAT1; aka CCBL1) and 3 (KYAT3; aka CCBL2) can carry out the glutamine-phenylpyruvate transaminase reaction (126.96.36.199) and were previously called "glutamine transaminase K" and "glutamine transaminase L", respectively. These enzymes are included herein in family 188.8.131.52, together with an enzymes from T. thermophilus that also catalyzes the transamination of both kynurenine and glutamine.
The human kynurenine aminotransferase 2 (KYAT2; official gene name ADAT) also catalyzes the a-aminoadipate aminotransferase reaction (184.108.40.206) and is included in family 220.127.116.11a.
The human kynurenine aminotransferase 4 (KYAT4) corresponds in fact to the mitochondial aspartate aminotransferase (gene name GOT2) and is included in family 18.104.22.168a.
In E. coli, the transamination of kynurenine is apparently carried out by aspartate aminotransferase (included in family 22.214.171.124c).
Finally, note that the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine in insects is carried out by enzymes phylogenetically related to alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase; these enzymes are included in family 126.96.36.199a.
||1YIZ; 3B46; 1V2F; 4WLH;
||-Eubacteria -Fungi -Metazoa -Human
Enzyme (activities) 188.8.131.52
BRENDA (activities) 184.108.40.206
KEGG (pathways) 220.127.116.11
PLPMDB (PLP mutants) 18.104.22.168
| Articles on 22.214.171.124
Nadvi NA, Salam NK, Park J, Akladios FN, Kapoor V, Collyer CA, Gorrell MD, Church WB (2017) High resolution crystal structures of human kynurenine aminotransferase-I bound to PLP cofactor, and in complex with aminooxyacetate
Protein Sci 26
Pinto JT, Krasnikov BF, Alcutt S, Jones ME, Dorai T, Villar MT, Artigues A, Li J, Cooper AJ (2014) Kynurenine aminotransferase III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes that have cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity and can transaminate L-selenomethionine J Biol Chem 289 30950-61.
Battsetseg B, Boldbaatar D, Battur B, Xuan X, Fujisaki K.
(2009) Cloning and molecular characterization of tick kynurenine aminotransferase (HlKAT) from Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitol Res. 105 669-79.
Han Q, Robinson H, Cai T, Tagle DA, Li J. (2009) Biochemical and structural properties of mouse kynurenine aminotransferase III Mol Cell Biol 29 784-93.
Wogulis M, Chew ER, Donohoue PD, Wilson DK. (2008) Identification of Formyl Kynurenine Formamidase and Kynurenine Aminotransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Crystallographic, Bioinformatic and Biochemical Evidence Biochemistry 47 1608-21.
Han, Q.; Li, J.; Li, J. (2004) pH dependence, substrate specificity and inhibition of human kynurenine aminotransferase I Eur J Biochem 271 4804-14.
Rossi, F.; Han, Q.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Rizzi, M. (2004) Crystal structure of human kynurenine aminotransferase I J Biol Chem 279 50214-20.
Hosono, A.; Mizuguchi, H.; Hayashi, H.; Goto, M.; Miyahara, I.; Hirotsu, K.; Kagamiyama, H. (2003) Glutamine:phenylpyruvate aminotransferase from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus HB8
J Biochem (Tokyo) 134 843-51.
Fang, J.; Han, Q.; Li, J. (2002) Isolation, characterization, and functional expression of kynurenine aminotransferase cDNA from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32 943-50.
Han, Q.; Fang, J.; Li, J. (2001) Kynurenine aminotransferase and glutamine transaminase K of Escherichia coli: identity with aspartate aminotransferase Biochem J 360 617-23.
Mosca, M.; Cozzi, L.; Breton, J.; Avanzi, N.; Toma, S.; Okuno, E.; Schwarcz, R.; Speciale, C.; Magagnin, S.; Mostardini, M.; Benatti, L.
(1996) Cloning of rat and human kynurenine aminotransferase Adv Exp Med Biol 398 449-54.
Buchli, R.; Alberati-Giani, D.; Malherbe, P.; Kohler, C.; Broger, C.; Cesura, A. M. (1995) Cloning and functional expression of a soluble form of kynurenine/alpha- aminoadipate aminotransferase from rat kidney J Biol Chem 270 29330-5.