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B6db activities: 4.4.1.9

4.4.1.9
Description L-3-cyanoalanine synthase
Alternative names Beta-cyanoalanine synthase;
Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase.
Catalyzed reaction L-cysteine + cyanide = H(2)S + L-3-cyanoalanine.
Cofactor Pyridoxal-phosphate.
Comments Enzymes with this activity are strictly related to Cysteine Synthase (EC 2.5.1.47) both from a mechanistic and from a phylogenetic viewpoint.

In particular, family a is composed only of plant enzymes, which appear to be mitochondrial isozymes of cysteine synthase.

Family b contains enzymes from insects, useful for cyanide detoxification and apparently acquired from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer.

One cyanoalanine synthase from bacteria (Bacillus stearothermophilus) has also been cloned and characterized, but this enzyme is in fact tenfold more active as a cysteine synthase, and has been included in the 2.5.1.47 family.

PDB 3VBE;
Organisms -Eubacteria -Plants -Metazoa
 

Family 

4.4.1.9_a (11) 4.4.1.9_b (12)
 
Links Enzyme (activities) 4.4.1.9
BRENDA (activities) 4.4.1.9
KEGG (pathways) 4.4.1.9
PLPMDB (PLP mutants) 4.4.1.9
 
References
 Herfurth AM, van Ohlen M, Wittstock U (2017) β-Cyanoalanine Synthases and Their Possible Role in Pierid Host Plant Adaptation Insects 8 E62.

 Machingura M, Salomon E, Jez JM, Ebbs SD (2016) The β-cyanoalanine synthase pathway: beyond cyanide detoxification Plant Cell Environ 39 2329-41.

 van Ohlen M, Herfurth AM, Kerbstadt H, Wittstock U (2016) Cyanide detoxification in an insect herbivore: Molecular identification of β-cyanoalanine synthases from Pieris rapae Insect Biochem Mol Biol 70 99-110.

 Wybouw N, Dermauw W, Tirry L, Stevens C, Grbić M, Feyereisen R, Van Leeuwen T (2014) A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning Elife 3 e02365.

 Yi H, Juergens M, Jez JM (2012) Structure of soybean β-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants Plant Cell 39 2696-706.

 Omura H, Kuroda M, Kobayashi M, Shimizu S, Yoshida T, Nagasawa T. (2003) Purification, characterization and gene cloning of thermostable O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase forming beta-cyano-L-alanine J Biosci Bioeng 95 470-5.

 Maruyama, A.; Saito, K.; Ishizawa, K. (2001) Beta-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase from potato: molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and spatial and hormonal regulation. Plant Mol Biol 51 985-93.

 Hatzfeld, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Schmidt, A.; Noji, M.; Ishizawa, K.; Saito, K. (2000) beta-Cyanoalanine synthase is a mitochondrial cysteine synthase-like protein in spinach and Arabidopsis Plant Physiol 123 1163-71.

 Warrilow, A. G.; Hawkesford, M. J. (2000) Cysteine synthase (O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase) substrate specificities classify the mitochondrial isoform as a cyanoalanine synthase J Exp Bot 51 985-93.

Articles on 4.4.1.9
 
last changed 2019/06/20 12:01

B6db activities