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B6db activities:
Description Alanine racemase
Catalyzed reaction L-alanine = D-alanine.
Cofactor Pyridoxal-phosphate.
Comments In most bacteria, alanine racemase is the only source of d-alanine for cell wall biosynthesis and hence a viable target for antibacterial drug development.

This activity also occurs in some fungi (the corresponding sequences have been incorporated in family b, which is composed of fold-type 1 enzymes) as well as in plants and metazoa.

Additional_domain AAD22403.1 300-700
Prosite PROSITE; PDOC00332;
PDB 1BD0; 1L6F; 1L6G; 1SFT; 2SFP; 4FS9; 4LUS; 6A2F;
Organisms -Eubacteria -Plants -Fungi -Metazoa

Family (49) (4)
Links Enzyme (activities)
BRENDA (activities)
KEGG (pathways)
PLPMDB (PLP mutants)
 Israr M, Lv G, Xu S, Li Y, Ding S, Zhao B, Ju J (2019) Biochemical characterization and mutational analysis of alanine racemase from Clostridium perfringens J Biosci Bioeng 128 149-155.

 Muhammad M, Li Y, Gong S, Shi Y, Ju J, Zhao B, Liu D (2019) Purification, Characterization and Inhibition of Alanine Racemase from a Pathogenic Strain of Streptococcus iniae Pol J Microbiol 68 331-341.

 Dong H, Hu T, He G, Lu D, Qi J, Dou Y, Long W, He X, Ju J, Su D (2018) Structural features and kinetic characterization of alanine racemase from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 Biochem Biophys Res Commun 497 139-145.

 Tassoni R, van der Aart LT, Ubbink M, van Wezel GP, Pannu NS (2017) Structural and functional characterization of the alanine racemase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 483 122-128.

 Liu D., Liu X., Zhang L., Jiao H., Ju J., Zhao B. (2015) Biochemical characteristics of an alanine racemase from Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 Microbiology 84 202–209.

 Meziane-Cherif D, Stogios PJ, Evdokimova E, Egorova O, Savchenko A, Courvalin P (2015) Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases mBio 6 e00806.

 Asojo OA, Nelson SK, Mootien S, Lee Y, Rezende WC, Hyman DA, Matsumoto MM, Reiling S, Kelleher A, Ledizet M, Koski RA, Anthony KG. (2014) Structural and biochemical analyses of alanine racemase from the multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile strain 630 Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 70 1922-33.

 Espaillat A, Carrasco-López C, Bernardo-García N, Pietrosemoli N, Otero LH, Álvarez L, de Pedro MA, Pazos F, Davis BM, Waldor MK, Hermoso JA, Cava F. (2014) Structural basis for the broad specificity of a new family of amino-acid racemases. Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography. 70 79-90.

 di Salvo ML1, Florio R, Paiardini A, Vivoli M, D'Aguanno S, Contestabile R. (2013) Alanine racemase from Tolypocladium inflatum: A key PLP-dependent enzyme in cyclosporin biosynthesis and a model of catalytic promiscuity Arch Biochem Biophys 529 55-65.

 Radkov AD, Moe LA (2013) Amino acid racemization in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 J Bacteriol 195 5016-24.

 Xue Z, Hu Y, Xu S, Ohnishi K, Ma Y, Ju J, Zhao B. (2013) Characterization and preliminary mutation analysis of a thermostable alanine racemase from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4 Extremophiles 17 611-21.

 Liu JL, Liu XQ, Shi YW. (2012) Expression, purification, and characterization of alanine racemase from Pseudomonas putida YZ-26. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 28 267-74.

 Couñago RM, Davlieva M, Strych U, Hill RE, Krause KL. (2009) Biochemical and structural characterization of alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (Ames). BMC Struct Biol. 8 e71963.

 Yoshikawa N, Okada S, Abe H. (2009) Molecular Characterization of Alanine Racemase in the Kuruma Prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus J Biochem 145 249-58.

 Ono, K.; Yanagida, K.; Oikawa, T.; Ogawa, T.; Soda, K. (2006) Alanine racemase of alfalfa seedlings (Medicago sativa L.): First evidence for the presence of an amino acid racemase in plants Phytochemistry 67 856-60.

 Ju, J.; Yokoigawa, K.; Misono, H.; Ohnishi, K. (2005) Cloning of alanine racemase genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and oligomerization states of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli J Biosci Bioeng 100 409-417.

 Contestabile, R.; Paiardini, A.; Pascarella, S.; di Salvo, M. L.; D'Aguanno, S.; Bossa, F. (2001) l-Threonine aldolase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and fungal alanine racemase. A subgroup of strictly related enzymes specialized for different functions Eur J Biochem 268 6508-25.

 Strych, U.; Penland, R. L.; Jimenez, M.; Krause, K. L.; Benedik, M. J. (2001) Characterization of the alanine racemases from two mycobacteria FEMS Microbiol Lett 196 93-8.

 Uo, T.; Yoshimura, T.; Tanaka, N.; Takegawa, K.; Esaki, N. (2001) Functional characterization of alanine racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a eucaryotic counterpart to bacterial alanine racemase J Bacteriol 183 2226-33.

 Arias, C. A.; Weisner, J.; Blackburn, J. M.; Reynolds, P. E. (2000) Serine and alanine racemase activities of VanT: a protein necessary for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 Microbiology 146 1727-34.

 Cheng, Y.Q. Walton, J.D. (2000) A eukaryotic alanine racemase gene involved in cyclic peptide biosynthesis J Biol Chem. 275 4906-4911.

 Kim, S.S; Yu, Y.G. (2000) Molecular cloning of an eExtremely thermostable alanine racemase from Aquifex pyrophilus and enzymatic characterization of the expressed protein J Biochem Mol Biol 33 82-8.

 Strych, U.; Huang, H. C.; Krause, K. L.; Benedik, M. J. (2000) Characterization of the alanine racemases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Curr Microbiol 41 290-4.

 Okubo, Y.; Yokoigawa, K.; Esaki, N.; Soda, K.; Kawai, H. (1999) Characterization of psychrophilic alanine racemase from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus Biochem Biophys Res Commun 256 333-40.

 Shaw, J.P.; Petsko, G.A.; Ringe, D. (1997) Determination of the structure of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 1.9-A resolution. Biochemistry 36 1329-1342.

 Neidhart, D. J.; Distefano, M. D.; Tanizawa, K.; Soda, K.; Walsh, C. T.; Petsko, G. A. (1987) X-ray crystallographic studies of the alanine-specific racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Overproduction, crystallization, and preliminary characterization J Biol Chem 262 15323-6.

 Inagaki, K.; Tanizawa, K.; Badet, B.; Walsh, C. T.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K. (1986) Thermostable alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: molecular cloning of the gene, enzyme purification, and characterization Biochemistry 25 3268-74.

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last changed 2018/07/10 13:44

B6db activities