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B6db activities:
Description Cysteine desulfurase.
Alternative names IscS;
cysteine desulfurylase.
Catalyzed reaction L-cysteine + [enzyme]-cysteine = L-alanine + [enzyme]-S-sulfanylcysteine
Cofactor Pyridoxal-phosphate.
Comments The reaction shown is the first part of a catalytic process, which is completed by passing on the protein-bound sulfur to other acceptors.
In Azotobacter vinelandii, this sulfur provides the inorganic sulfide required for nitrogenous metallocluster formation. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, thio-nucleosides in tRNA, thiamine, biotin, lipoate and pyranopterin (molybdopterin) and functions by mobilizing sulfur.
Cysteine desulfurases are phylogenetically and functionally related to enzymes such as cystine lyases (C-DES type).
They are also phylogenetically related to selenocysteine lyases (EC, and often show some selenocysteine lyase activity.
Diseases Classical xanthinuria type II
Organisms -Eubacteria -Archea -Plants -Metazoa -Human

Family (39)
Links Enzyme (activities)
BRENDA (activities)
KEGG (pathways)
PLPMDB (PLP mutants)
 Ruiz M1, Bettache A, Janicki A, Vinella D, Zhang CC, Latifi A. (2010) The alr2505 (osiS) gene from Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 encodes a cysteine desulfurase induced by oxidative stress. FEBS J. 277 3715-25.

 Marelja Z, Stöcklein W, Nimtz M, Leimkühler S. (2008) A novel role for human Nfs1 in the cytoplasm: Nfs1 acts as a sulfur donor for MOCS3, a protein involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis J Biol Chem 283 25178-85.

 You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z. (2007) A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans Biochemistry 46 6126-33.

 Biederbick A, Stehling O, Rösser R, Niggemeyer B, Nakai Y, Elsässer HP, Lill R. (2006) Role of human mitochondrial Nfs1 in cytosolic iron-sulfur protein biogenesis and iron regulation Mol Cell Biol 26 5675-87.

 Muhlenhoff, U.; Balk, J.; Richhardt, N.; Kaiser, J. T.; Sipos, K.; Kispal, G.; Lill, R. (2004) Functional characterisation of the eukaryotic cysteine desulfurase Nfs1p from S. cerevisiae J Biol Chem 279 36906-15.

 Mihara, H.; Esaki, N. (2002) Bacterial cysteine desulfurases: their function and mechanisms Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60 12-23.

 Nilsson, K.; Lundgren, H.K.; Hagervall, T.G.; Bjork, G.R. (2002) The cysteine desulfurase IscS is required for synthesis of all five thiolated nucleosides present in tRNA from Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium J Bacteriol 184 6830-5.

 Kaiser, J.T.; Clausen, T.; Bourenkow, G.P.; Bartunik, H.D.; Steinbacher, S.; Huber, R. (2000) Crystal structure of a NifS-like protein from Thermotoga maritima: implications for iron sulphur cluster assembly J Mol Biol 297 451-64.

 Kato, S.; Mihara, H.; Kurihara, T.; Yoshimura, T.; Esaki, N. (2000) Gene cloning, purification, and characterization of two cyanobacterial NifS homologs driving iron-sulfur cluster formation Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64 2412-9.

 Kirby, J.; Wright, F.; Flint, H.J. (1998) A cysteine desulphurase gene from the cellulolytic rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens Biochim Biophys Acta 1386 233-7.

 Flint, D. H. (1996) Escherichia coli contains a protein that is homologous in function and N-terminal sequence to the protein encoded by the nifS gene of Azotobacter vinelandii and that can participate in the synthesis of the Fe-S cluster of dihydroxy-acid dehydratase J Biol Chem 271 16068-74.

 Zheng, L.; White, R.H.; Cash, V.L.; Jack, R.F.; Dean, D.R. (1993) Cysteine desulfurase activity indicates a role for NIFS in metallocluster biosynthesis Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 2754-8.

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last changed 2014/07/11 16:55

B6db activities