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B6db activities: 4.1.1.15

4.1.1.15
Description Glutamate decarboxylase
Alternative names L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase;
Glutamic decarboxylase;
GAD.
Catalyzed reaction L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
Cofactor Pyridoxal-phosphate.
Comments -!- The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, 3-sulfino-L-alanine and L-aspartate.
Family a includes only metazoan glutamate decarboxylases, that are responsible for the production of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Mammals possess two isoforms of this enzyme, encoded by different genes: a 67-kDa form (DCE1 or GAD67) and a 65-kDa form (DCE2 or GAD65).
Alternate splicing produces smaller variants of GAD67 in the brain of mice and rat embryos. Another splice variant of GAD67 (termed GAD25 and devoid of GAD enzymatic activity) is produced in human islets, testis and adrenal cortex.

Family b includes sequences from bacteria, fungi and plants.
In several bacteria glutamate decarboxylases play an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in acid environments.
In plants, the enzyme product, GABA, is generally considered a metabolite, mostly produced in response to stress, but some evidences exist that it may also function as a signal molecule.

Diseases Autosomal recessive symmetric spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) MIM:603513
Prosite PROSITE; PDOC00329;
PDB 2OKK; 2OKJ; 1PMM; 5GP4;
Organisms -Eubacteria -Plants -Fungi -Metazoa -Human
 

Family 

4.1.1.15_a (22) 4.1.1.15_b (44)
 
Links Enzyme (activities) 4.1.1.15
BRENDA (activities) 4.1.1.15
KEGG (pathways) 4.1.1.15
PLPMDB (PLP mutants) 4.1.1.15
 
References
 Yuan H, Wang H, Fidan O, Qin Y, Xiao G, Zhan J (2019) Identification of new glutamate decarboxylases from Streptomyces for efficient production of γ-aminobutyric acid in engineered Escherichia coli J Biol Eng 13 24.

 Huamg et al. (2018) Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 glutamate decarboxylase: Crystal structure and functional analysis Biochem Biophys Res Commun 503 1703-1709.

 Lee KW, Shim JM, Yao Z, Kim JA, Kim HJ, Kim JH (2017) Characterization of a Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) from Enterococcus avium M5 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Korean Fermented Seafood J Microbiol Biotechnol 27 1216-1222.

 Lin Q, Li D, Qin H (2017) Molecular cloning, expression, and immobilization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus fermentum YS2 Electronic J Biotechnol 27 8-13.

 Xiong Q, Xu Z, Xu L, Yao Z, Li S, Xu H (2017) Efficient Production of γ-GABA Using Recombinant E. coli Expressing Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) Derived from Eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae Appl Biochem Biotechnol 183 1390-1400.

 Kanwal S, Incharoensakdi A (2016) Characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and its role in nitrogen metabolism Plant Physiol Biochem 99 59-65.

 Li M, Wang L, Qiu L, Wang W, Xin L, Xu J, Wang H, Song L (2016) A glutamic acid decarboxylase (CgGAD) highly expressed in hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Dev Comp Immunol 63 56-65.

 Liu Q, Cheng H, Ma X, Xu N, Liu J, Ma Y (2016) Expression, characterization and mutagenesis of a novel glutamate decarboxylase from Bacillus megaterium Biotechnol Lett 38 1107-13.

 Grassini G, Pennacchietti E, Cappadocio F, Occhialini A, De Biase D (2015) Biochemical and spectroscopic properties of Brucella microti glutamate decarboxylase, a key component of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system FEBS Open Bio 5 209-18.

 Sa HD, Park JY, Jeong SJ, Lee KW, Kim JH (2015) Characterization of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus sakei A156 Isolated from Jeot-gal J Microbiol Biotechnol 25 696-703.

 Shin SM, Kim H, Joo Y, Lee SJ, Lee YJ, Lee SJ, Lee DW (2014) Characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum and its C-terminal function for the pH dependence of activity J Agric Food Chem 62 12186-93.

 Ilg T, Berger M, Noack S, Rohwer A, Gaßel M. (2013) Glutamate decarboxylase of the parasitic arthropods Ctenocephalides felis and Rhipicephalus microplus: gene identification, cloning, expression, assay development, identification of inhibitors by high throughput screening and comparison with the orthologs from Drosophila melanogaster and mouse. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 43 162-77.

 Trobacher CP, Zarei A, Liu J, Clark SM, Bozzo GG, Shelp BJ (2013) Calmodulin-dependent and calmodulin-independent glutamate decarboxylases in apple fruit BMC Plant Biol 13 144.

 Molina-Rueda JJ1, Pascual MB, Cánovas FM, Gallardo F. (2010) Characterization and developmental expression of a glutamate decarboxylase from maritime pine Planta 232 1471-83.

 Zhuang Y, Ren G, He C, Li X, Meng Q, Zhu C, Wang R, Zhang J (2010) Cloning and Characterization of a Maize cDNA Encoding Glutamate Decarboxylase Plant Mol Biol Rep 28 620-626.

 Park, K-B; Oh, S-H (2007) Cloning, sequencing and expression of a novel glutamate decarboxylase gene from a newly isolated lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis OPK-3 Bioresource Technology 98 312-319.

 Oh, S-H.; Choi W-G.; Lee I-T.;Yun S-J. (2005) Cloning and characterization of a rice cDNA encoding glutamate decarboxylase J Biochem Mol Biol. 38 595-601.

 Capitani, G.; De Biase, D.; Aurizi, C.; Gut, H.; Bossa, F.; Grutter, M.G. (2003) Crystal structure and functional analysis of Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase EMBO J. 22 4027-37.

 Kato, Y.; Kato, Y.; Furukawa, K.; Hara, S. (2002) Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the glutamate decarboxylase-encoding gene gadA from Aspergillus oryzae Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66 2600-5.

 Jin, Y.; Jorgensen, E.; Hartwieg, E.; Horvitz, H.R. (1999) The Caenorhabditis elegans gene unc-25 encodes glutamic acid decarboxylase and is required for synaptic transmission but not synaptic development J Neurosci 19 539-48.

 Nomura, M.; Nakajima, I.; Fujita, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Kimoto, H.; Suzuki, I.; Aso, H. (1999) Lactococcus lactis contains only one glutamate decarboxylase gene Microbiology 145 1375-80.

 Turano, F. J.; Fang, T. K. (1998) Characterization of two glutamate decarboxylase cDNA clones from Arabidopsis Plant Physiol 117 1411-21.

 Yun, S. J.; Oh, S. H. (1998) Cloning and characterization of a tobacco cDNA encoding calcium/calmodulin-dependent glutamate decarboxylase Mol Cells 8 125-9.

 De Biase, D.; Tramonti, A.; John, R. A.; Bossa, F. (1996) Isolation, overexpression, and biochemical characterization of the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase from Escherichia coli Protein Expr Purif 8 430-8.

 Bu, D. F.; Erlander, M. G.; Hitz, B. C.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Kaufman, D. L.; Wagner-McPherson, C. B.; Evans, G. A.; Tobin, A. J. (1992) Two human glutamate decarboxylases, 65-kDa GAD and 67-kDa GAD, are each encoded by a single gene Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89 2115-9.

 Jackson, F.R.; Newby, L.M.; Kulkarni, S.J. (1990) Drosophila GABAergic systems: sequence and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase J Neurochem 54 1068-78.

 Wyborski, R. J.; Bond, R. W.; Gottlieb, D. I. (1990) Characterization of a cDNA coding for rat glutamic acid decarboxylase Brain Res Mol Brain Res 8 193-8.

Articles on 4.1.1.15
 
last changed 2019/06/21 13:08

B6db activities