Activities | Families | Sequences | Fold types | References | Help
B6db activities:
Description Alanine racemase.
Catalyzed reaction L-alanine = D-alanine.
Cofactor Pyridoxal-phosphate.
Comments In most bacteria, alanine racemase is the only source of d-alanine for cell wall biosynthesis and hence a viable target for antibacterial drug development.

This activity also occurs in some fungi (the corresponding sequences have been incorporated in family b, which is composed of fold-type 2 enzymes) as well as in plants and metazoa.

Additional_domain AAD22403.1 300-700
Prosite PROSITE; PDOC00332;
PDB 1BD0; 1L6F; 1L6G; 1SFT; 2SFP; 1RCQ; 1VFS;
Organisms -Eubacteria -Plants -Fungi -Metazoa

Family (40) (4)
Links Enzyme (activities)
BRENDA (activities)
KEGG (pathways)
PLPMDB (PLP mutants)
 di Salvo ML1, Florio R, Paiardini A, Vivoli M, D'Aguanno S, Contestabile R. (2013) Alanine racemase from Tolypocladium inflatum: A key PLP-dependent enzyme in cyclosporin biosynthesis and a model of catalytic promiscuity Arch Biochem Biophys 529 55-65.

 Xue Z1, Hu Y, Xu S, Ohnishi K, Ma Y, Ju J, Zhao B. (2013) Characterization and preliminary mutation analysis of a thermostable alanine racemase from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4 Extremophiles 17 611-21.

 Liu JL, Liu XQ, Shi YW. (2012) Expression, purification, and characterization of alanine racemase from Pseudomonas putida YZ-26. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 28 267-74.

 Wu HM, Kuan YC, Chu CH, Hsu WH, Wang WC. (2012) Crystal structures of lysine-preferred racemases, the non-antibiotic selectable markers for transgenic plants. PLoS One. 7 .

 Couņago RM1, Davlieva M, Strych U, Hill RE, Krause KL. (2009) Biochemical and structural characterization of alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (Ames). BMC Struct Biol. .

 Yoshikawa N, Okada S, Abe H. (2009) Molecular Characterization of Alanine Racemase in the Kuruma Prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus J Biochem 145 249-58.

 Ono, K.; Yanagida, K.; Oikawa, T.; Ogawa, T.; Soda, K. (2006) Alanine racemase of alfalfa seedlings (Medicago sativa L.): First evidence for the presence of an amino acid racemase in plants Phytochemistry 67 856-60.

 Ju, J.; Yokoigawa, K.; Misono, H.; Ohnishi, K. (2005) Cloning of alanine racemase genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and oligomerization states of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli J Biosci Bioeng 100 409-417.

 Contestabile, R.; Paiardini, A.; Pascarella, S.; di Salvo, M. L.; D'Aguanno, S.; Bossa, F. (2001) l-Threonine aldolase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and fungal alanine racemase. A subgroup of strictly related enzymes specialized for different functions Eur J Biochem 268 6508-25.

 Strych, U.; Penland, R. L.; Jimenez, M.; Krause, K. L.; Benedik, M. J. (2001) Characterization of the alanine racemases from two mycobacteria FEMS Microbiol Lett 196 93-8.

 Uo, T.; Yoshimura, T.; Tanaka, N.; Takegawa, K.; Esaki, N. (2001) Functional characterization of alanine racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a eucaryotic counterpart to bacterial alanine racemase J Bacteriol 183 2226-33.

 Arias, C. A.; Weisner, J.; Blackburn, J. M.; Reynolds, P. E. (2000) Serine and alanine racemase activities of VanT: a protein necessary for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 Microbiology 146 1727-34.

 Cheng, Y.Q. Walton, J.D. (2000) A eukaryotic alanine racemase gene involved in cyclic peptide biosynthesis J Biol Chem. 275 4906-4911.

 Kim, S.S; Yu, Y.G. (2000) Molecular cloning of an eExtremely thermostable alanine racemase from Aquifex pyrophilus and enzymatic characterization of the expressed protein J Biochem Mol Biol 33 82-8.

 Strych, U.; Huang, H. C.; Krause, K. L.; Benedik, M. J. (2000) Characterization of the alanine racemases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Curr Microbiol 41 290-4.

 Okubo, Y.; Yokoigawa, K.; Esaki, N.; Soda, K.; Kawai, H. (1999) Characterization of psychrophilic alanine racemase from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus Biochem Biophys Res Commun 256 333-40.

 Shaw, J.P.; Petsko, G.A.; Ringe, D. (1997) Determination of the structure of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 1.9-A resolution. Biochemistry 36 1329-1342.

 Neidhart, D. J.; Distefano, M. D.; Tanizawa, K.; Soda, K.; Walsh, C. T.; Petsko, G. A. (1987) X-ray crystallographic studies of the alanine-specific racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Overproduction, crystallization, and preliminary characterization J Biol Chem 262 15323-6.

 Inagaki, K.; Tanizawa, K.; Badet, B.; Walsh, C. T.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K. (1986) Thermostable alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: molecular cloning of the gene, enzyme purification, and characterization Biochemistry 25 3268-74.

Articles on
last changed 2010/02/02 10:22

B6db activities