|Townsend, D. M.; Hanigan, M. H.
|Inhibition of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase activity blocks the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in mice
|J Pharmacol Exp Ther
|Cisplatin is nephrotoxic. The mechanism underlying this organ-specific toxicity is unknown. We hypothesize that cisplatin is metabolized via a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase- dependent pathway that has been shown to activate several haloalkenes to nephrotoxins. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited GGT and cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase in C57BL/6 mice and analyzed the effect of the inhibitors on the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. GGT was inhibited by pretreating the mice with acivicin. Cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with 15 mg/kg cisplatin (i.p.) and sacrificed on day 5. Half the mice treated with cisplatin alone died before sacrifice. The cisplatin- treated mice sacrificed at 5 days had significantly elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Histologic analysis revealed severe damage to the renal proximal tubules. Pretreatment with acivicin or AOAA protected the mice from the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. None of the pretreated animals died before sacrifice. BUN levels and quantitative histologic analysis of the kidneys confirmed the protective effect of acivicin and AOAA. Platinum levels in the kidneys were not altered by acivicin or AOAA, indicating that neither affected the uptake of cisplatin into the kidney. Likewise, cisplatin-induced weight loss was not altered by acivicin or AOAA, suggesting that weight loss and nephrotoxicity are via distinct mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin is due to the metabolism of a platinum-glutathione conjugate by GGT and cysteine S- conjugate beta-lyase to a potent nephrotoxin.