|Kulikova VV, Morozova EA, Revtovich SV, Kotlov MI, Anufrieva NV, Bazhulina NP, Raboni S, Faggiano S, Gabellieri E, Cioni P, Belyi YF, Mozzarelli A, Demidkina TV
|Gene cloning, characterization, and cytotoxic activity of methionine γ-lyase from Clostridium novyi
| Clostridium novyi methionine γ-lyase; cytotoxic activity; gene cloning; pyridoxal 5′-phosphate; spectral properties; steady state kinetics
|The exploitation of methionine-depleting enzyme methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is a promising strategy against specific cancer cells that are strongly dependent on methionine. To identify MGL from different sources with high catalytic activity and efficient anticancer action, we have expressed and characterized MGL from Clostridium novyi and compared its catalytic efficiency with the previously studied MGL from Citrobacter freundii. The purified recombinant MGL exhibits kcat and kcat /Km for methionine γ-elimination reaction that are 2.4- and 1.36-fold higher than C. freundii enzyme, respectively, whereas absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectra are very similar, as expected on the basis of 87% sequence identity and high conservation of active site residues. The reactivity of cysteine residues with DTNB and iodoacetamide was investigated as well as the impact of their chemical modification on catalytic activity. This information is relevant because for increasing bioavailability and reducing immunogenity, MGL should be decorated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). It was found that Cys118 is a faster reacting residue, which results in a significant decrease in the γ-elimination activity. Thus, the protection of Cys118 before conjugation with cysteine-reacting PEG represents a valuable strategy to preserve MGL activity. The anticancer action of C. novyi MGL, evaluated in vitro against prostate (PC-3), chronic myelogenous leucemia (K562), and breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) cancer cells, exhibits IC50 of 1.3 U mL-1 , 4.4 U mL-1 , 1.2 U mL-1 , and 3.4 U mL-1 , respectively. A higher cytotoxicity of C. novyi MGL was found against cancer cells with respect to C. freundii MGL, with the exception of PC-3, where a lower cytotoxicity was observed.