|Fahien, L. A.; Hsu, S. L.; Kmiotek, E.
|Effect of aspartate on complexes between glutamate dehydrogenase and various aminotransferases
|J Biol Chem
|In previous studies it was found that: (a) aspartate aminotransferase increases the aspartate dehydrogenase activity of glutamate dehydrogenase; (b) the pyridoxamine-P form of this aminotransferase can form an enzyme-enzyme complex with glutamate dehydrogenase; and (c) the pyridoxamine-P form can be dehydrogenated to the pyridoxal-P form by glutamate dehydrogenase. It was therefore concluded (Fahien, L.A., and Smith, S.E. (1974) J. Biol. Chem 249, 2696-2703) that in the aspartate dehydrogenase reaction, aspartate converts the aminotransferase into the pyridoxamine-P form which is then dehydrogenated by glutamate dehydrogenase. The present results support this mechanism and essentially exclude the possibility that aspartate actually reacts with glutamate dehydrogenase and the aminotransferase is an allosteric activator. Indeed, it was found that aspartate is actually an activator of the reaction between glutamate dehydrogenase and the pyridoxamine-P form of the aminotransferase. Aspartate also markedly activated the alanine dehydrogenase reaction catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase plus alanine aminotransferase and the ornithine dehydrogenase reaction catalyzed by ornithine aminotransferase plus glutamate dehydrogenase. In these latter two reactions, there is no significant conversion of aspartate to oxalecetate and other compounds tested (including oxalacetate) would not substitute for aspartate. Thus aspartate is apparently bound to glutamate dehydrogenase and this increases the reactivity of this enzyme with the pyridoxamine-P form of aminotransferases. This could be of physiological importance because aspartate enables the aspartate and ornithine dehydrogenase reactions to be catalyzed almost as rapidly by complexes between glutamate dehydrogenase and the appropriate mitochondrial aminotransferase in the absence of alpha-ketoglutarate as they are in the presence of this substrate. Furthermore, in the presence of aspartate, alpha- ketoglutarate can have little or no affect on these reactions. Consequently, in the mitochondria of some organs these reactions could be catalyzed exclusively by enzyme-enzyme complexes even in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate. Rat liver glutamate dehydrogenase is essentially as active as thebovine liver enzyme with aminotransferases. Since the rat liver enzyme does not polymerize, this unambiguously demonstrates that monomeric forms of glutamate dehydrogenase can react with aminotransferases.