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B6db references: 79222114

type Journal Article
authors Capitani, G.; De Biase, D.; Gut, H.; Ahmed, S.; Grutter, M.G.
title Structural model of human GAD65: prediction and interpretation of biochemical and immunogenic features
journal Proteins
ui 79222114
year (2005)
volume 1
number 59
pages 7-14
keywords Animal
abstract The 65 kDa human isoform of glutamate decarboxylase, GAD65, plays a central role in neurotransmission in higher vertebrates and is a typical autoantigen in several human autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), Stiff-man syndrome and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. In autoimmune diabetes, an attack of inflammatory cells to endocrine pancreatic beta-cells leads to their complete destruction, eventually resulting in the inability to produce sufficient insulin for the body's requirements. Even though the etiology of beta-cell destruction is still a matter of debate, the role and antigenic potency of GAD65 are widely recognized. Herein a model of GAD65 is presented, which is based on the recently solved crystal structures of mammalian DOPA decarboxylase and of bacterial glutamate decarboxylase. The model provides for the first time a detailed and accurate structure of the GAD65 subunit (all three domains) and of its dimeric quaternary assembly. It reveals the structural basis for specific antibody recognition to GAD65 as opposed to GAD67, the other human isoform, which shares 81% sequence similarity with GAD65 and is much less antigenic. Literature data on monoclonal antibody binding are perfectly consistent with the detailed features of the model, which allows explanation of several findings on GAD65 immunogenicity. Importantly, by analyzing the active site, we identified the residues most likely involved in catalysis and substrate recognition, paving the way for rational mutagenesis studies of the GAD65 reaction mechanism, specificity and inhibition.
last changed 2006/03/06 11:17

B6db references