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B6db references: 88150976

type Journal Article
authors Martin, D. L.
title Regulatory properties of brain glutamate decarboxylase
journal Cell Mol Neurobiol
ui 88150976
year (1987)
volume 7
number 3
pages 237-53.
keywords Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism
abstract 1. Glutamate decarboxylase is a focal point for controlling gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis in brain. Several factors that appear to be important in the regulation of GABA synthesis have been identified by relating studies of purified glutamate decarboxylase to conditions in vivo. 2. The interaction of glutamate decarboxylase with its cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is a regulated process and appears to be one of the major means of controlling enzyme activity. The enzyme is present in brain predominantly as apoenzyme (inactive enzyme without bound cofactor). Studies with purified enzyme indicate that the relative amounts of apo- and holoenzyme are determined by the balance in a cycle that continuously interconverts the two. 3. The cycle that interconverts apo- and holoenzyme is part of the normal catalytic mechanism of the enzyme and is strongly affected by several probable regulatory compounds including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, ATP, inorganic phosphate, and the amino acids glutamate, GABA, and aspartate. ATP and the amino acids promote apoenzyme formation and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and inorganic phosphate promote holoenzyme formation. 4. Numerous studies indicate that brain contains multiple molecular forms of glutamate decarboxylase. Multiple forms that differ markedly in kinetic properties including their interactions with the cofactor have been isolated and characterized. The kinetic differences among the forms suggest that they play a significant role in the regulation of GABA synthesis.
last changed 2002/11/12 16:17

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