|Angelaccio, S.; Pascarella, S.; Fattori, E.; Bossa, F.; Strong, W.; Schirch, V.
|Serine hydroxymethyltransferase: origin of substrate specificity
|All forms of serine hydroxymethyltransferase, for which a primary structure is known, have five threonine residues near the active-site lysyl residue (K229) that forms the internal aldimine with pyridoxal phosphate. For Escherichia coli serine hydroxymethyltransferase each of these threonine residues has been changed to an alanine residue. The resulting five mutant enzymes were purified and characterized with respect to kinetic and spectral properties. The mutant enzymes T224A and T227A showed no significant changes in kinetic and spectral properties compared to the wild-type enzyme. The T225A and T230A enzymes exhibited differences in Km and kcat values but exhibited the same spectral properties as the wild-type enzyme. The four threonine residues at positions 224, 225, 227, and 230 do not play a critical role in the mechanism of the enzyme. The T226A enzyme had nearly normal affinity for substrates and coenzymes but had only 3% of the catalytic activity of the wild-type enzyme. The spectrum of the T226A enzyme in the presence of amino acid substrates showed a large absorption maximum at 343 nm with only a small absorption band at 425 nm, unlike the wild- type enzyme whose enzyme-substrate complexes absorb at 425 nm. Rapid reaction studies showed that when amino acid substrates and substrate analogues were added to the T226A enzyme, the internal aldimine absorbing at 422 nm was rapidly converted to a complex absorbing at 343 nm in a second-order process. This was followed by a very slow first- order formation of a complex absorbing at 425 nm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)