|Stover, P.; Zamora, M.; Shostak, K.; Gautam-Basak, M.; Schirch, V.
|Escherichia coli serine hydroxymethyltransferase. The role of histidine 228 in determining reaction specificity
|J Biol Chem
|Serine hydroxymethyltransferase has a conserved histidine residue (His- 228) next to the lysine residue (Lys-229) which forms the internal aldimine with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. This histidine residue is also conserved at the equivalent position in all amino acid decarboxylases and tryptophan synthase. Two mutant forms of Escherichia coli serine hydroxymethyltransferase, H228N and H228D, were constructed, expressed, and purified. The properties of the wild type and mutant enzymes were studied with substrates and substrate analogs by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, steady state kinetics, and rapid reaction kinetics. The conclusions of these studies were that His-228 plays an important role in the binding and reactivity of the hydroxymethyl group of serine in the one-carbon-binding site. The mutant enzymes utilize substrates and substrate analogs more effectively for a variety of alternate non-physiological reactions compared to the wild type enzyme. As one example, the mutant enzymes cleave L-serine to glycine and formaldehyde when tetrahydropyteroylglutamate is replaced by 5- formyltetrahydropteroylglutamate. The released formaldehyde inactivates these mutant enzymes. The loss of integrity of the one-carbon-binding site with L-serine in the two mutant forms of the enzyme may be the result of these enzymes not undergoing a conformational change to a closed form of the active site when serine forms the external aldimine complex.