|Eads, J.C., Beeby, M., Scapin, G., Yu, T.W.; Floss, H.G.
|Crystal structure of 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA) synthase
|The biosynthesis of ansamycin antibiotics, including rifamycin B, involves the synthesis of an aromatic precursor, 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), which serves as starter for the assembly of the antibiotics' polyketide backbone. The terminal enzyme of AHBA formation, AHBA synthase, is a dimeric, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme with pronounced sequence homology to a number of PLP enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of antibiotic sugar moieties. The structure of AHBA synthase from Amycolatopsis mediterranei has been determined to 2.0 A resolution, with bound cofactor, PLP, and in a complex with PLP and an inhibitor (gabaculine). The overall fold of AHBA synthase is similar to that of the aspartate aminotransferase family of PLP-dependent enzymes, with a large domain containing a seven-stranded beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices and a smaller domain consisting of a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices. The uninhibited form of the enzyme shows the cofactor covalently linked to Lys188 in an internal aldimine linkage. On binding the inhibitor, gabaculine, the internal aldimine linkage is broken, and a covalent bond is observed between the cofactor and inhibitor. The active site is composed of residues from two subunits of AHBA synthase, indicating that AHBA synthase is active as a dimer.