|Huang F, Spiteller D, Koorbanally NA, Li Y, Llewellyn NM, Spencer JB.
|Elaboration of neosamine rings in the biosynthesis of neomycin and butirosin.
|The proteins Neo-11 and Neo-18 encoded in the neomycin gene cluster (neo) of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB 8233 have been characterized as glucosaminyl-6'-oxidase and 6'-oxoglucosaminyl:L-glutamate aminotransferase, respectively. The joint activity of Neo-11 and Neo-18 is responsible for the conversion of paromamine to neamine in the biosynthetic pathway of neomycin through a mechanism of FAD-dependent dehydrogenation followed by a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-mediated transamination. Neo-18 is also shown to catalyze deamination at C-6''' of neomycin, thus suggesting bifunctional roles of the two enzymes in the formation of both neosamine rings of neomycin. The product of the btrB gene, a homologue of neo-18 in the butirosin biosynthetic gene cluster (btr) in Bacillus circulans, exhibits the same activity as Neo-18; this indicates that there is a similar reaction sequence in both butirosin and neomycin biosynthesis.