|Hong L, Zhao Z, Melanšon CE 3rd, Zhang H, Liu HW
|In vitro characterization of the enzymes involved in TDP-D-forosamine biosynthesis in the spinosyn pathway of Saccharopolyspora spinosa
|J Am Chem Soc
|Forosamine (4-dimethylamino)-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-beta-D-threo-hexopyranose) is a highly deoxygenated sugar component of several important natural products, including the potent yet environmentally benign insecticide spinosyns. To study D-forosamine biosynthesis, the five genes (spnO, N, Q, R, and S) from the spinosyn gene cluster thought to be involved in the conversion of TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to TDP-D-forosamine were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the corresponding proteins were purified and their activities examined in vitro. Previous work demonstrated that SpnQ functions as a pyridoxamine 5'-monophosphate (PMP)-dependent 3-dehydrase which, in the presence of the cellular reductase pairs ferredoxin/ferredoxin reductase or flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase, catalyzes C-3 deoxygenation of TDP-4-keto-2,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. It was also established that SpnR functions as a transaminase which converts the SpnQ product, TDP-4-keto-2,3,6-trideoxy-D-glucose, to TDP-4-amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-D-glucose. The results presented here provide a full account of the characterization of SpnR and SpnQ and reveal that SpnO and SpnN functions as a 2,3-dehydrase and a 3-ketoreductase, respectively. These two enzymes act sequentially to catalyze C-2 deoxygenation of TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to form the SpnQ substrate, TDP-4-keto-2,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. Evidence has also been obtained to show that SpnS functions as the 4-dimethyltransferase that converts the SpnR product to TDP-D-forosamine. Thus, the biochemical functions of the five enzymes involved in TDP-D-forosamine formation have now been fully elucidated. The steady-state kinetic parameters for the SpnQ-catalyzed reaction have been determined, and the substrate specificities of SpnQ and SpnR have been explored. The implications of this work for natural product glycodiversification and comparative mechanistic analysis of SpnQ and related NDP-sugar 3-dehydrases E1 and ColD are discussed.