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B6db references: 18650422

type Journal Article
authors Giles TN, Graham DE.
title Crenarchaeal arginine decarboxylase evolved from an S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase enzyme
journal J Biol Chem
sel selected
ui 18650422
year (2008)
volume 283
number 38
pages 25829-38
keywords Arginine
abstract The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus uses arginine to produce putrescine for polyamine biosynthesis. However, genome sequences from S. solfataricus and most crenarchaea have no known homologs of the previously characterized pyridoxal 5'-phosphate or pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylases that catalyze the first step in this pathway. Instead they have two paralogs of the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC). The gene at locus SSO0585 produces an AdoMetDC enzyme, whereas the gene at locus SSO0536 produces a novel arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC). Both thermostable enzymes self-cleave at conserved serine residues to form amino-terminal beta-domains and carboxyl-terminal alpha-domains with reactive pyruvoyl cofactors. The ArgDC enzyme specifically catalyzed arginine decarboxylation more efficiently than previously studied pyruvoyl enzymes. alpha-Difluoromethylarginine significantly reduced the ArgDC activity of purified enzyme, and treating growing S. solfataricus cells with this inhibitor reduced the cells' ratio of spermidine to norspermine by decreasing the putrescine pool. The crenarchaeal ArgDC had no AdoMetDC activity, whereas its AdoMetDC paralog had no ArgDC activity. A chimeric protein containing the beta-subunit of SSO0536 and the alpha-subunit of SSO0585 had ArgDC activity, implicating residues responsible for substrate specificity in the amino-terminal domain. This crenarchaeal ArgDC is the first example of alternative substrate specificity in the AdoMetDC family. ArgDC activity has evolved through convergent evolution at least five times, demonstrating the utility of this enzyme and the plasticity of amino acid decarboxylases.
last changed 2009/01/09 14:10

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