|Lukežič; T, Fayad AA, Bader C, Harmrolfs K, Bartuli J, Groß S, Lešnik U, Hennessen F, Herrmann J, Pikl Š, Petković H, Müller R
|Engineering Atypical Tetracycline Formation in Amycolatopsis sulphurea for the Production of Modified Chelocardin Antibiotics
|ACS Chem Biol
|To combat the increasing spread of antimicrobial resistance and the shortage of novel anti-infectives, one strategy for the development of new antibiotics is to optimize known chemical scaffolds. Here, we focus on the biosynthetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sulphurea for derivatization of the atypical tetracycline chelocardin and its potent broad-spectrum derivative 2-carboxamido-2-deacetyl-chelocardin. Heterologous biosynthetic genes were introduced into this chelocardin producer to modify functional groups and generate new derivatives. We demonstrate cooperation of chelocardin polyketide synthase with tailoring enzymes involved in biosynthesis of oxytetracycline from Streptomyces rimosus. An interesting feature of chelocardin, compared with oxytetracycline, is the opposite stereochemistry of the C4 amino group. Genes involved in C4 transamination and N,N-dimethylation of oxytetracycline were heterologously expressed in an A. sulphurea mutant lacking C4-aminotransferase. Chelocardin derivatives with opposite stereochemistry of the C4 amino group, as N,N-dimethyl- epi-chelocardin and N,N-dimethyl-2-carboxamido-2-deacetyl- epi-chelocardin, were produced only when the aminotransferase from oxytetracycline was coexpressed with the N-methyltransferase OxyT. Surprisingly, OxyT exclusively accepted intermediates carrying an S-configured amino group at C4 in chelocardin. Applying medicinal chemistry approaches, several 2-carboxamido-2-deacetyl- epi-chelocardin derivatives modified at C4 were produced. Analysis of the antimicrobial activities of the modified compounds demonstrated that the primary amine in the R configuration is a crucial structural feature for activity of chelocardin. Unexpectedly, C10 glycosylated chelocardin analogues were identified, thus revealing the glycosylation potential of A. sulphurea. However, efficient glycosylation of the chelocardin backbone occurred only after engineering of a dimethylated amino group at the C4 position in the opposite S configuration, which suggests some evolutionary remains of chelocardin glycosylation.