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B6db references: 94032359

type Journal Article
authors Hayashi, H.; Inoue, K.; Nagata, T.; Kuramitsu, S.; Kagamiyama, H.
title Escherichia coli aromatic amino acid aminotransferase: characterization and comparison with aspartate aminotransferase
journal Biochemistry
Activity 2.6.1.57
Family 2.6.1.57.a
sel selected
ui 94032359
year (1993)
volume 32
number 45
pages 12229-39.
 
keywords Amino Acid Sequence
abstract Aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) from Escherichia coli was overexpressed in E. coli cells, purified, and characterized. The enzyme was similar to aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) of E. coli in many aspects, such as gross protein structure and spectroscopic properties. The reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-form ArAT with amino acids and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate-form ArAT with oxo acids were investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometric techniques. The kinetic parameters for these "half" reactions could excellently explain the ArAT-catalyzed overall transamination reactions at pH 8.0. Reactions of ArAT with aspartate and tryptophan which had been deuterated at position 2 showed isotope effects of 2.5 and 6.0 in the kcat values of the half-reactions, showing that the proton-transfer step is at least partially rate-limiting for these reactions. ArAT and AspAT showed overlapping substrate specificity. Both ArAT and AspAT were active toward dicarboxylic substrates. ArAT showed, however, 10(3)-fold higher activity toward aromatic substrates than AspAT. This high activity toward aromatic substrates was in part ascribed to the active site hydrophobicity of ArAT, which was suggested to be about 1.4 times as large as that of AspAT. In addition to dicarboxylic substrate analogs, aromatic substrate analogs such as carboxylic acids, 2-methyl amino acids, and 3-hydroxy amino acids caused characteristic changes in the absorption spectra of ArAT, while these aromatic analogs did not significantly change the spectra of AspAT. In particular, the erythro-3- hydroxy analogs of phenylalanine and aspartate caused a prominent absorption of ArAT at around 500 nm, which is generally ascribed to the accumulation of quinonoid intermediates. The threo forms of these 3- hydroxy analogs acted as substrates for ArAT. The erythro and threo forms of 3-hydroxyaspartate reacted with AspAT similarly as they reacted with ArAT; however, both forms of 3-phenylserine were poor substrates for AspAT, although phenylalanine was a fairly good substrate for AspAT. The observations on the two erythro-3-hydroxy amino acids show the similar orientation of these analogs in the active site of ArAT, probably through a hydrogen-bonding network involving the hydroxy groups of the analogs and Tyr70, and suggest that the aromatic binding pocket is near or even overlaps the side-chain-carboxylate- binding site for dicarboxylic substrates.
last changed 2007/12/05 19:49

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