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B6db families:
Description Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.
Notes Phylogenetically, this family is rather compact, but strictly related to eukaryotic histidine decarboxylase.

Functionally, these enzymes are rather diverse (even though the generic name of the activity can justify their inclusion in a single family). In fact, these enzymes can act on L-Phenylalanine, L-Tyrosine, 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan, 5-Hydroxykynurenamine.

Although plant and animal enzymes share extensive amino acid similarity, they display striking differences in their substrate specificities. AADCs from metazoa accept a broad range of aromatic L-amino acids, whereas plant enzymes appear specialized for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both.

Phenylacetaldehyde synthase from petunia is a specialized phenylalanine decarboxylase that is capable of stoichiometrically coupling the decarboxylation of Phe with the further conversion of phenylethylamine to phenylacetaldehyde.

PLP Fold Type I
PLP-dependent Domain
Domain alignment
Domain hmm
Fold type I

Number of sequences
Sequences in seed alignment
BacteriaAFH88381 (Bacillus atrophaeus); BAB48249 (Mesorhizobium loti); CAB71551 (Polyangium cellulosum); CAC90034 (Yersinia pestis); AAN68161 (Pseudomonas putida);
MetazoaAAU05399 (Caenorhabditis elegans); AAH56292 (Danio rerio); DDC_BOVIN (Bos taurus); DDC_RAT (Rattus norvegicus); DDC_CAVPO (Cavia porcellus); AAK48988 (Bombyx mori); DDC_HUMAN (Homo sapiens); CAB37088 (Drosophila melanogaster); AAC31639 (Aedes aegypti); DDC_PIG (Sus scrofa); BAA95568 (Tenebrio molitor); DDC_MANSE (Manduca sexta);
ViridiplantaeCAB56038.1 (Arabidopsis thaliana); AEQ01059 (Mitragyna speciosa); TYD5_PAPSO (Papaver somniferum); ABB72475 (Petunia x hybrida); AAG60665 (Thalictrum flavum); ADV41492 (Arabidopsis thaliana); AAB39709 (Camptotheca acuminata); TYD2_PETCR (Petroselinum crispum); TYD2_PAPSO (Papaver somniferum); ACN62126 (Capsicum annuum); BAL72830 (Rosa hybrid cultivar); BAC80122 (Oryza sativa); ACN62127 (Capsicum annuum); ADL28270 (Rauvolfia verticillata); DDC_CATRO (Catharanthus roseus); TYD1_PAPSO (Papaver somniferum ); BAC41515 (Ophiorrhiza pumila);

DISPLAY: Fasta format, alignment, hmm, hmm_local

Reference sequence DDC_BOVIN
Domain interval 35-414
Catalytic site 303 K
 Tossaton Charoonratana, Juraithip Wungsintaweekul , Niwat Keawpradub and Rob Verpoorte2 (2013) Molecular cloning and expression of tryptophan decarboxylase from Mitragyna speciosa Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 35 2611-2621.

 Wang MX, Cai ZZ, Lu Y, Xin HH, Chen RT, Liang S, Singh CO, Kim JN, Niu YS, Miao YG. (2013) Expression and functions of dopa decarboxylase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori was regulated by molting hormone. Mol Biol Rep. 40 4115-22..

 Yuwen L, Zhang FL, Chen QH, Lin SJ, Zhao YL, Li ZY. (2013) The role of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in bacillamide C biosynthesis by Bacillus atrophaeus C89. Sci Rep. 3 .

 Liu W, Chen R, Chen M, Zhang H, Peng M, Yang C, Ming X, Lan X, Liao Z. (2012) Tryptophan decarboxylase plays an important role in ajmalicine biosynthesis in Rauvolfia verticillata. Planta. 236 239-50.

 Gutensohn M, Klempien A, Kaminaga Y, Nagegowda DA, Negre-Zakharov F, Huh JH, Luo H, Weizbauer R, Mengiste T, Tholl D, Dudareva N. (2011) Role of aromatic aldehyde synthase in wounding/herbivory response and flower scent production in different Arabidopsis ecotypes. Plant J. 66 591-602.

 Park S, Kang K, Lee K, Choi D, Kim YS, Back K. (2009) Induction of serotonin biosynthesis is uncoupled from the coordinated induction of tryptophan biosynthesis in pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum) upon pathogen infection. Planta 230 1197-206.

 Kaminaga Y, Schnepp J, Peel G, Kish CM, Ben-Nissan G, Weiss D, Orlova I, Lavie O, Rhodes D, Wood K, Porterfield DM, Cooper AJ, Schloss JV, Pichersky E, Vainstein A, Dudareva N. (2006) Plant phenylacetaldehyde synthase is a bifunctional homotetrameric enzyme that catalyzes phenylalanine decarboxylation and oxidation J Biol Chem 281 23357-66.

 Hare EE, Loer CM. (2004) Function and evolution of the serotonin-synthetic bas-1 gene and other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes in Caenorhabditis BMC Evol Biol 2 24.

 Yamazaki, Y.; Sudo, H.; Yamazaki, M.; Aimi, N.; Saito, K. (2003) Camptothecin biosynthetic genes in hairy roots of Ophiorrhiza pumila: cloning, characterization and differential expression in tissues and by stress compounds Plant Cell Physiol 44 395-403.

 Muller, R.; Gerth, K.; Brandt, P.; Blocker, H.; Beyer, S. (2000) Identification of an L-dopa decarboxylase gene from Sorangium cellulosum So ce90 Arch Microbiol 173 303-6.

 Maldonado-Mendoza, I.E.; Lopez-Meyer, M.; Galef, J.R.; Burnett, R.J.; Nessler, C.L. (1996) Molecular analysis of a new member of the opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family Plant Physiol 110 43-9.

 Moore, P.S.; Dominici, P.; Borri Voltattorni, C. (1996) Cloning and expression of pig kidney dopa decarboxylase: comparison of the naturally occurring and recombinant enzymes Biochem J 315 249-56.

 Hiruma, K.; Carter, M. S.; Riddiford, L. M. (1995) Characterization of the dopa decarboxylase gene of Manduca sexta and its suppression by 20-hydroxyecdysone Dev Biol 169 195-209.

 Kawalleck, P.; Keller, H.; Hahlbrock, K.; Scheel, D.; Somssich, I.E. (1993) A pathogen-responsive gene of parsley encodes tyrosine decarboxylase J Biol Chem 268 2189-94.

 Park, D. H.; Kim, K. T.; Choi, M. U.; Samanta, H.; Joh, T. H. (1992) Characterization of bovine aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase expressed in a mouse cell line: comparison with native enzyme Brain Res Mol Brain Res 16 232-8.

 De Luca, V.; Marineau, C.; Brisson, N. (1989) Molecular cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding a plant tryptophan decarboxylase: comparison with animal dopa decarboxylases Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 2582-6.

 Ichinose, H.; Kurosawa, Y.; Titani, K.; Fujita, K.; Nagatsu, T. (1989) Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase Biochem Biophys Res Commun 164 1024-30.

Articles on
last changed 2008/01/30 19:09

B6db families