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B6db families: b
Description Glutamate decarboxylase (family b)
Notes This family includes sequences from bacteria, fungi and plants. Similar sequences also exist in archaea, but they were not included here because none of them has been functionally validated.

Bacterial glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a homohexameric enzyme of about 330 kDa, which plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in acid environments.
Plant GAD differs from the bacterial enzyme in having a C-terminal extension of 33 amino acids within which resides a calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain. In plants, the enzyme product, GABA, is generally considered a metabolite, mostly produced in response to stress, but some evidences exist that it may also function as a signal molecule.

PLP Fold Type I
PLP-dependent Domain
Domain alignment
Domain hmm
Fold type I

Number of sequences 44
Sequences in seed alignment
BacteriaWP_011668532 (Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306); ALU66010 (Bacillus megaterium); APD30855 (Enterococcus avium); QBY26592 (Streptomyces chromofuscus); DCEB_LISMO (Listeria monocytogenes); AGF50754 (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803); AJR27923 (Lactobacillus sakei); DCEA_ECOLI (Escherichia coli); QBY26590 (Streptomyces toxytricini); ZP_00031802 (Burkholderia fungorum); ZP_00023967 (Ralstonia metallidurans); BAB81764 (Clostridium perfringens); AAS41604 (Bacillus cereus); DCE_LACLC (Lactococcus lactis (subsp. cremoris)); AAL82718 (Edwardsiella tarda); AAO77677 (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron); NP_963191 (Mycobacterium avium ); WP_041594741 (Brucella microti); CCC80401 (Lactobacillus plantarum ); ZP_00037596 (Enterococcus faecium); T36342 (Streptomyces coelicolor); QBY26591 (Streptomyces sp. MJ654-NF4); AAK47878 (Mycobacterium tuberculosis); BAO00911 (Lactobacillus fermentum YS2); CAE20649 (Prochlorococcus marinus); BAC72367 (Streptomyces avermitilis); AAZ95185 (Lactobacillus brevis); CAE33151 (Bordetella bronchiseptica);
FungiBAA88152 (Aspergillus oryzae); EAA54393 (Magnaporthe grisea ); CAB91726 (Neurospora crassa); EAA62607 (Aspergillus nidulans); GAX69098 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae);
ViridiplantaeDCE2_ARATH (Arabidopsis thaliana); AAC39483 (Nicotiana tabacum); DCE_LYCES (Lycopersicon esculentum); AHC56660 (Malus domestica); ABZ88153 (Zea mays); ABA18653 (Pinus pinaster); DCE_PETHY (Petunia hybrida); AAP46640 (Hordeum vulgare); DCE1_ARATH (Arabidopsis thaliana); AHC56662 (Malus domestica); AHC56661 (Malus domestica);

DISPLAY: Fasta format, alignment, hmm, hmm_local

Reference sequence DCEA_ECOLI
Domain interval 33-383
Catalytic site 276 K
 Yuan H, Wang H, Fidan O, Qin Y, Xiao G, Zhan J (2019) Identification of new glutamate decarboxylases from Streptomyces for efficient production of γ-aminobutyric acid in engineered Escherichia coli J Biol Eng 13 24.

 Huamg et al. (2018) Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 glutamate decarboxylase: Crystal structure and functional analysis Biochem Biophys Res Commun 503 1703-1709.

 Lee KW, Shim JM, Yao Z, Kim JA, Kim HJ, Kim JH (2017) Characterization of a Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) from Enterococcus avium M5 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Korean Fermented Seafood J Microbiol Biotechnol 27 1216-1222.

 Lin Q, Li D, Qin H (2017) Molecular cloning, expression, and immobilization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus fermentum YS2 Electronic J Biotechnol 27 8-13.

 Xiong Q, Xu Z, Xu L, Yao Z, Li S, Xu H (2017) Efficient Production of γ-GABA Using Recombinant E. coli Expressing Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) Derived from Eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae Appl Biochem Biotechnol 183 1390-1400.

 Kanwal S, Incharoensakdi A (2016) Characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and its role in nitrogen metabolism Plant Physiol Biochem 99 59-65.

 Liu Q, Cheng H, Ma X, Xu N, Liu J, Ma Y (2016) Expression, characterization and mutagenesis of a novel glutamate decarboxylase from Bacillus megaterium Biotechnol Lett 38 1107-13.

 Grassini G, Pennacchietti E, Cappadocio F, Occhialini A, De Biase D (2015) Biochemical and spectroscopic properties of Brucella microti glutamate decarboxylase, a key component of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system FEBS Open Bio 5 209-18.

 Sa HD, Park JY, Jeong SJ, Lee KW, Kim JH (2015) Characterization of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus sakei A156 Isolated from Jeot-gal J Microbiol Biotechnol 25 696-703.

 Shin SM, Kim H, Joo Y, Lee SJ, Lee YJ, Lee SJ, Lee DW (2014) Characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum and its C-terminal function for the pH dependence of activity J Agric Food Chem 62 12186-93.

 Trobacher CP, Zarei A, Liu J, Clark SM, Bozzo GG, Shelp BJ (2013) Calmodulin-dependent and calmodulin-independent glutamate decarboxylases in apple fruit BMC Plant Biol 13 144.

 Molina-Rueda JJ1, Pascual MB, Cánovas FM, Gallardo F. (2010) Characterization and developmental expression of a glutamate decarboxylase from maritime pine Planta 232 1471-83.

 Zhuang Y, Ren G, He C, Li X, Meng Q, Zhu C, Wang R, Zhang J (2010) Cloning and Characterization of a Maize cDNA Encoding Glutamate Decarboxylase Plant Mol Biol Rep 28 620-626.

 Park, K-B; Oh, S-H (2007) Cloning, sequencing and expression of a novel glutamate decarboxylase gene from a newly isolated lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis OPK-3 Bioresource Technology 98 312-319.

 Oh, S-H.; Choi W-G.; Lee I-T.;Yun S-J. (2005) Cloning and characterization of a rice cDNA encoding glutamate decarboxylase J Biochem Mol Biol. 38 595-601.

 Capitani, G.; De Biase, D.; Aurizi, C.; Gut, H.; Bossa, F.; Grutter, M.G. (2003) Crystal structure and functional analysis of Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase EMBO J. 22 4027-37.

 Kato, Y.; Kato, Y.; Furukawa, K.; Hara, S. (2002) Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the glutamate decarboxylase-encoding gene gadA from Aspergillus oryzae Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66 2600-5.

 Nomura, M.; Nakajima, I.; Fujita, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Kimoto, H.; Suzuki, I.; Aso, H. (1999) Lactococcus lactis contains only one glutamate decarboxylase gene Microbiology 145 1375-80.

 Turano, F. J.; Fang, T. K. (1998) Characterization of two glutamate decarboxylase cDNA clones from Arabidopsis Plant Physiol 117 1411-21.

 De Biase, D.; Tramonti, A.; John, R. A.; Bossa, F. (1996) Isolation, overexpression, and biochemical characterization of the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase from Escherichia coli Protein Expr Purif 8 430-8.

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last changed 2018/07/26 10:39

B6db families